Interview with Dr. Daniel Paredes-Sabja. International level science: New Millennium Nucleus of Intestinal Microbiota

Interview with Dr. Daniel Paredes-Sabja. International level science: New Millennium Nucleus of Intestinal Microbiota

It does some time, the Millennium Science initiative, which funds projects of scientific research in Chile, belonging to the Ministry of economy, development and tourism; He gave the list of new centres of excellence. These so-called "Millennium nuclei", have an initial duration of three years, later it can compete for a renewal of the same period and after that, open up new possibilities: the transformed into Institute, with ten years of validity.

This is why this contest in particular, charged as much relevance and attention in the scientific community; Since the Millennium, since a good while ago, has been characterized by the high quality of its researchers and works, which are internationally recognized. In fact, the Review Committee of the Millennium Science initiative, is composed of international professionals who are highly prominent within their work, occupying important positions in prestigious institutions.

In this context, and in hands of the new awards, is the new Millennium nucleus of biology of the Microbiota Intestinal, led by academician and researcher at Universidad Andrés Bello, Dr. Daniel Paredes-Sabja, who during the last 7 years, He has managed the laboratory of Microbiota. In that sense, dozens of students of different ranges on the academic scale, have been formed with the Paredes-Sabja Dr., who as a young researcher, has managed to forge a vibrant and competitive career. Setting out his goals in a global context.

"Our laboratory, which takes around seven years in Chile, has been consolidated in the scientific community of" Clostridium difficileespecially in regards to the espora-hospedero of this complex bacterium interaction-related research. Under that premise, we were able to develop a unique niche, which has allowed us to cultivate several areas of expertise, including: the development of a line of research of basic science on Assembly of the spores, how they interact with the host, epidemiology of C. difficile in Chile, and science applied to the development of vaccines. That shows that our work has been truly multidisciplinary", indicates Dr. Paredes-Sabja.

Within this context, this scientific, together his team and colleagues began to trace the first lines of this core, from a new perspective that included high-level research, with which to generate new knowledge linked with the microbiota, area that in the words of Dr. Paredes-Sabja, is beginning its boom. "In the field of microbiota have made many relevant questions, however, data for 8 years, it corresponded to mere descriptive science, which was devoid of molecular mechanisms that allow you to understand basic biological aspects." The next level then, is to solve this item clarifying mechanisms that explain how the bacterium creates a beneficial effect in the host, and how to compete for something specific against a pathogen", he explains.

Faced with this panorama, the challenge for Dr. Daniel Paredes-Sabja and his new team of the kernel, is to bring all the knowledge generated in Clostridium difficile other relevant bacteria on the health of the human population, in that sense, one of the main tasks is to be able to generate tools and find relevant models, more previously unexplored.

"In the United States, all groups are working on Bacteroidetes, that is it can be manipulated genetically microbiota, is all that has been done in Clostridia pathogens. However, within Clostridia, there is a family called Ruminococcaceae, where there are several beneficial microbiota species. In this new niche to explore, is where we focus as a team. The did not have tools, we did an alternative, but equally powerful approach that allows us to answer questions accurately mechanistic. In it, mix aspects of genetic bacterial classical, mostly random mutagenesis - as it was done in the past - with new technologies that allow complete genomes sequenced", he explains.

Through random mutations and sequencing can be identified areas of the genome that are enriched or impoverished with the analyzed phenotypes. The way in which these dynamics are determined is generated when they submit these results to a platform of phenotypic selection, either at the plate or in animal models. This generates a catalog of genes associated with the phenotype. In that sense, Dr. Daniel Paredes-Sabja, indicates that this type of experiments constitute itself, something that is very relevant, since new information is obtained. "It's powerful to identify a first battery of genes that could be associated with the question we ask in this nucleus and that has to do with the ability of the microbiota colonize, persist and be transmitted." So it is essential the approach that we are giving them", he says.

Microbiota: Bacteria in action

Microbiota that we as individuals, responds to the same that has formed due to what have been acquiring throughout our lives. Well, now depends on our hygiene the number of beneficial bacteria that we have been or not, and how these have been transmitted correctly to the microbiota. From this point of view, are born concepts such as routes of transmission and colonization of the microbiota, aspects which are discussed from canonical or innovative aspects. "We chose two species to develop our studies, both anaerobic stringent, with the difference that a common and the other not." "In response, our hypothesis is that which common is easier that is transmitted, so if we are chemical mutagenesis, we will be able to establish the genetic catalog associated with sporulation genes that are involved in the transmission", points out.

This perspective and advanced way of investigating, opens a tremendous range of possibilities, which also carries a powerful epidemiological component to scientists. "The same tools of genomic epidemiology, that have been developed for pathogens, are used to determine whether the strain that is in my body is clonally similar or different to another that is in another person, which may identify the" transmission events", ends.

Source: 4ID/CONGRESS, All rights reserved. ®
Journalist:Patricio Grunert Alarcón. ®

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