3 vaccines "made in Chile" revolutionary that could curb the hanta, cancer and syncytial virus

3 vaccines "made in Chile" revolutionary that could curb the hanta, cancer and syncytial virus

If you think all revolutionary science makes out, today we show you three developments in homeland are giving that talk about innovation in Chile.

More than two centuries have passed since the BritishEdward Jenner He developed the first vaccine of the history at the end of the 18th century, which was focused to generate immunity against the virus responsible for innumerable pandemics from the ancient world: smallpox. A century before Louis Pasteur discovered the world of disease-causing microorganisms,theJenner witmanaged to save more of500 million peoplesmallpox, and since then, new vaccines havesaved a countless numberof people around the world to various infectious diseases.

In a context ofmovements "anti-vacunas"(these are not anything new and the same Jenner wasvictim of your campaignsdefamation) responsible for thereturn of diseasesalready eradicated in developing countries (such as measles, mumps and whooping cough), it is always good to remember the great achievements of this technology.

Globally, vaccines allowederadication of smallpoxto late 70s, therinderpestin 2001, and are "a hair" oferadicating polio, while various diseases that kill millions of children a century ago,Today they are controlled.

Chilean contribution... from abroad

Like much of modern technology, vaccines have been created in developed countries with good budgets for the scientific area, but Chile has not fallen behind in contributing with new vaccines.Already the biochemistPablo ValenzuelaHe rose to fame in 1986 when it announced the launch of thefirst biotechnology vaccine against hepatitis B, disease responsible for 300 million deaths a year.

Unlike the previous vaccine, which required the blood of infected patients, Valenzuela created genetically modified yeasts which inserted the genes that express proteins of hepatitis b virus capsule In aprocess efficient and secure, managed to get (non-infectious) necessary proteins to induce immunity, and without any danger of introducing real viral DNA in the vaccine.

While this vaccine used until today was developed by a Chilean, all its research and development was carried out inChiron Corporation, a company co-founded by Valenzuela in California, United States. However, already there are vaccines in experimental stage developed by Chilean universities of the country.

A Chilean vaccine focused on babies

Therespiratory syncytial virus(VRS) is a pathogen of high incidence globally.In Chile, represents around the80% of diseasesrespiratory in winterand a major cause of hospitalization in children less than two years.

To deliver a solution to this problem, in 2004 a research group led by the director of the Millennium Institute of Immunology and immunotherapy (IMII) and Professor of the Catholic University of Chile, doctorAlexis Kalergis, began todevelop a vaccinefor this dangerous virus. The approach was based on a chimeric vaccine that combines the Bacillus used against tuberculosis (BCG), expressing also a protein of RSV virus.

This pioneering vaccine alreadycompleted a phase I clinical trialin 24 adults during 2017,showing that it is safe and induces immune response against the VRS and tuberculosis. Because of its potential, it has receivedNational Awards,financingthe Government of the United States andrecognitionby international institutions. In addition, this year The Lancet published areview about the virusVRS in whichhighlighted the vaccineChilean as theonly one of 19 vaccine candidates worldwide that you can use in newborn infants and young children.

With patents in the United States, the European Union, China, India and other countries, Kalergis expectedstart phase IIby 2019, depending on the availability of resources. On the other hand, his research group alreadyworking on a treatmentWhatIt reduces the viral load and pulmonary inflammation in patients infected with the virus.

National immunotherapy that can save the skin cancer

As cancer is the second leading cause of death in Chile.Within skin cancers, the most aggressive and lethal is theMelanoma, which opens like a pigmented lesion that is very similar to a lunar (why take advantage of ask the dermatologist for any mole or strange skin stain). Itsincidence has increasedcountry andfigures masaltasthey are reported in Antofagasta by high solar radiation (why get case cuandote recommended to use Sun block factor 50 + and avoid prolonged exposure to the Sun).

Thethe treatment pillarfor melanoma in early stages, it is surgery, but in later stages are considered options ofImmunotherapywhich are "trained" to the patient's immune system so that it can eliminate the tumor; a medical area so promising that it meant you to two scientists theNobel Prize in medicine2018.

In Chile, theDr. Flavio Salazar, current Deputy Director for IMII and Vice President for research and development of the University of Chile, takes nearly two decades working on the development ofavaccine against melanoma. Since 2002 together with his team of researchers began to try dendritic cells (a type of immune system cell) in order to "educate them" in laboratory to attack the tumor, and subsequently re - inject them as vaccine immune in patients.

With this estrategiaque had a cost of investment-private $5 million (more than 3 billion Chilean pesos, lower turnover compared to developments abroad), born thetechnology TAPCells, which until the beginning of 2018He had appliedmore than 350 patients with melanoma in advanced stage and 50 men with prostate cancer.

"Of this total,60% has shown a positive immune responsewhich means that the survival of those with advanced melanoma rose from 10 to 36 months. In addition, we have about 30 patients who have not had a relapse in five years,"said Salazar in ainterviewcarried out by Mon.

In battle against the yellow Pygmy Rice Rat

Probably in more than one summer you heard prevention campaigns to avoid contact with long-tailed voles and their remains (such as urine and feces), for being famous hantavirus carriers. To our bad luck,the strain of the virus that is in Chile)strain Andes) is one of the most deadlycausing lung, muscle, kidney problems and ahigh fatality(that at least has fallen from 60-80% in the 1990s, to 30-40% at present).

The biggest problem is that there is still no vaccine against the virus and the only option, is to useplasma autoimmuneuse restricted to rely on blood samples from patients who managed to survive the virus (with an innate ability to produce antibodies).

PhD in microbiology, Maria Ines Barría, who developed antibodies against cancer, influenza and HIV in the United States, currently leads aResearchat the Universidad de Concepción toIt seems to have found the cure against the hanta. Sweeping approach consisted in analyzing the best antibodies that fought the hanta in blood samples from 35 survivors of Valdivia. Subsequently, with molecular biology techniques,they were isolated and clonedthese antibodies to test in hamsters with lethal doses of hantavirus. Results?

While the control group (to which nothing was done him) died completely, and the Group injected with autoimmune plasma, had some survivors (and not free of sequels),the Group injected with new vaccine "monoclonal" antibodies, showed a 100% survival.

It is worth mentioning that this vaccine would serve to prevent or treat disease, but unlike a traditional vaccine (which induces the body to produce its own antibodies), this is avaccine prophylaxisthat incorporates antibodies directly to the patient, and they only last a couple of weeks. It is an ideal tool forimmunize people in risk areassuch as farmers, forestry workers, guardian parks and army personnel.

Considering that 70% of those infected are rural people with few resources, are required around1000 millions of pesos to make a stock base of thousand doses of the new vaccine, and unfortunately following a request from Dr. BarriaUndersecretary of healthof the previous Government, it did not obtain good results.

"I expected that the Ministry of health will show some interest in the vaccine, which even bought or invested, but only who are interested.If Minsal is not involved, the drug some day is going to get a pharmaceutical and is going to cost millionsSpary asserted in areport.

The advantage of national vaccine

Advance the development of vaccines "Made in Chile" not only power factor of technological development that requires the country, but ensures a supply for the population and it can facilitate the development ofproducts focused on the epidemiological reality of the country.

Vaccines that are imported to Chile have not been developed with the same existing microbes here, by which to immunize our children (or adults infected) with microbial strains that are not necessarily the same of the country,We are not giving any immunity and protection possible.

To develop vaccines, from their research process to the final product, will require a large public and private sector effort tosolve both the costs of national centers of manufacturing of vaccines, as well as research initiativesthat are faked by the lack of resources (the case of the hanta vaccine is one example).

National scientists today have forward leaps with vaccines against the syncytial, hanta virus and some types of cancer, why not think that tomorrow they could continue with the common cold, influenza, HIV, or other types of cancers? As always, everything will depend on the political will, the priorities of our society and the public and private sector investment.

Do you know another vaccine that is in development in Chile?