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Schwann cell to Axon RNA Transfer. José R. Sotelo, Head of the Department of Proteins and Nucleic Acids, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable (IIBCE). Av. Italia 3318, Montevideo, Uruguay. I got a PhD on Biochemistry & Neuroscience. I worked in and visited several European and North American Laboratories and developed several international research collaborations Together with Prof. L.C.Cameron we founded an International Posgraduate Course that got the Bruce Albert Education Award (A.S.C.B., US). I focused my research to demonstrate that Axons contain in situ translated RNA. Much of the disputes turned now to the origin of these axonal RNAs. The neuronal soma as the source of most axonal RNAs is indisputable. However, the surrounding glial cells emerged as a supplemental source of axonal RNAs. Here, we focus on addressing the glial origin of axonal RNAs and ribosomes. We describe this process in both invertebrate axons and vertebrate axons. Court et al showed that Schwann cell to axon ribosomes transfer exists. Moreover, we showed Glia to axon RNA transfer in Peripheral axons (2013). Carsten (2013) also showed that Oligodendroglia transfer RNA to central axons. Recently, Ion Torrent massive sequencing of immunoprecipitated (Schwann cell synthesized) Bromo-uridine-mRNAs yielded hundreds of axonal mRNAs (i.e. neurofilaments, ankirin, actin, etc.). This implies important consequences respect the integration of glial and axonal function. This evolving field will certainly impact in the understanding of the cell biology and physiopathology of the axon. Moreover, if axonal protein synthesis can be controlled by the interacting glia, the possibilities for human clinical interventions in nerve injury and neurodegeneration are greatly increased.