Facts and milestones of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Chile in the last 50 years

Facts and milestones of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Chile in the last 50 years

By request of CONICYT, was asked to gather the facts and most important milestones of our discipline in the last 50 years.

The following are the facts or most important milestones in our discipline. Note that the facts or landmarks listed correspond to information that the members did reach the directors of the society. Our facts and milestones start with more general facts and then continues with the scientific contributions. With regard to the contributions of scientific publications, many biochemists have contributed to important developments in this discipline and listed some examples. This is far from being exhaustive, since we know that they have missed many important contributions by the urgency with which this information was requested to us.

Most important milestones:

1.-the creation of the first doctorate in biology in 1970, Chile (first entitled Ramón Latorre and Cecilia Hidalgo) and creation of the first doctoral program in biochemistry in the Faculty of Sciences and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, on March 25, 1971. Hermann Niemeyer was its first director and the first Committee, Jorge Allende, Catherine Connelly, Mitzy Canessa, Julio Celis (Secretary), Guido Pincheira, Jorge Babul (replaced Julio Celis in mid-1971) and its first entitled Oscar Reyes. In 1973 a national expanded the doctoral Committee was generated in biochemistry who was formed by; Hermann Niemeyer (director), Jorge Allende, Mitzy Canessa, Guido Pincheira, Jorge Babul (Secretary), Sergio Bazaes (delegate students), Osvaldo Cori, Edmundo Garcés, Raúl Goldschmidt, Simón Litvak, Frank Marcus, Marco tantrum, Vicent Santilli and Pablo Valenzuela. CONICYT awarded its first PhD this program grants, from 1971 to 1973. In addition was created in 1979 doctorate in Biochemistry and in 1989 PhD in biomedical sciences, both from the University of Chile.

2.-the creation of the society of biochemistry of Chile in 1974 and from 2017 society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Chile.

3.-income of our society of Biochemistry to the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) which took place in 1979.

4.-Impulse and strengthening of the formation of networks between researchers in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Ibero-America, by consign an agreement between the Argentine, Chilean and Spanish Societies for them in their annual meetings (Drs. Ricardo A. Wolosiuk, Juan Carlos Slebe and Joan Guinovart, starting in 2000, are the Lectures Dr, Alberto Sols (Argentina), Dr. Severo Ochoa (Chile) and Dr. Hermann Niemeyer and Dr. Luis Leloir in Spain. In addition, the subscription of agreements between the Brazilian-Argentine-Chilean Societies (Dr. Sergio Lavandero and Dr. Marcelo López-Lastra) and Uruguayan of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Dr. Ilona I. Concha) for the organization of a Symposium in each of its annual meetings.

5 impulse to the development of Molecular Biology in Chile. The Molecular Biology course organized by Dr. Jorge Allende to be issued in Chile every two years between the year 1968 and 1993 was the course of techniques of Molecular Biology. Subsequently, between 1993 and 1996, every year there were the Santiago Southern Summer Symposia that perrmitio bring many Nobel Laureates James D. Watson, Arthur Kornberg, Mario Capecchi, Harald Zur Hausen, and Edwin Krebs and becaron many young people Latin American. Subsequently, created the portable laboratories, which are courses in Molecular Biology and other areas to schools.

6.-the creation of careers in Biochemistry at different universities in Chile.

  • University of Chile (1957) developed by Professor Osvaldo Cori
  • Universidad de Concepción (1957)
  • Catholic University (1980)
  • Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (1980)
  • Universidad Austral de Chile (1981)
  • University of Santiago de Chile (1981)
  • University ofAndrés Bello (2001)
  • Universidad de Antofagasta (2006)
  • Universidad San Sebastián (2010)
  • University of la Frontera (2011)

7 creation of the National Association of students of Biochemistry ANEB the year 1985.

This was proposed in the 2nd National Congress of Biochemistry students held at the U de Chile in Santiago the year 1984. The ANEB has organized all the following national conference starting with the third national Congress of students of Biochemistry 1986 at PUC in Santiago.

8.-National Awards who worked in biochemical Sciences, Hermann Niemeyer, Jorge Allende, Ramón Latorre, Cecilia Hidalgo, Pablo Valenzuela and Nibaldo Inestroza.

9.-creation of the Foundation Science & life, Pablo Valenzuela, Bernardita Méndez and Mario Rosemblatt.

10.-ACCDiS: first Center of excellence at chronic diseases and creation of MAUCO (first cohort studies of chronic diseases in Latin America): Catterina Ferreccio, Pablo F. Castro, Alejandro Corvalán, Marcelo Kogan, Andrew FG Quest, Sergio Lavandero. University of Chile and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (2013).

11 Jorge Allende was the first Chilean President of Panamerican Association of Biochemical Societies (sixties) and Manuel Krauskopf was the first Chilean President, Panamerican Association for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (PABMB) (1997-2000). Also first titled President of CONICYT (1989-1990) biochemist opportunity that set up study groups to adjudicate the FONDECYT projects and created the first contest of major equipment for the universities.

Millennium 12-Institute in Immunology and immunotherapy is designated as the first centre of international excellence in the Southern Cone by the Federation of Immunology of USA (FOCIS). Pablo Gonzalez, Susan good, Marcelo Lopez-lastra, Claudia Riedel, Miguel O'Ryan, Carlos Fardella, Leandro Carreño, Gareth Owen, Luis Michea, Mercedes López, Flavio Salazar and Alexis Kalergis.

13.-contribution of biochemical production field and value creation in the country as it was in the year 1982 the irruption of the first biotech company, Bios Chile, founded by Pablo Valenzuela, José Codner, Arturo Yudelevich, Alejandro Venegas and Ioannes Alfredo. It is transcendent because it applied the technology of monoclonal antibodies to produce reagents diagnostic exported to all over the world.

14.-the creation of Crystal Lagoon by Fernando Fischmann, company valued at billions of dollarshttp://www.latercera.com/noticia/la-clave-del-exito-tras-crystal-lagoons/

15.-discovery of the sigmoidal kinetics of protein monomer, in 1975, Hermann Niemeyer, María Luz Cardenas, Tito Ureta, Lyllian Clark-Turri, José Peñaranda.

16.-discovery of non-coding RNAs mitochondrial and its role in the regulation of cell proliferation and its potential use in cancer therapy. Obtaining a patent for diagnosis and therapy of cancer being inventors, Luis Burzio, Jaime Villegas and Verónica Burzio. The first was 2004.

17. the vaccine against the Virus respiratory syncytial (RSV), antidote that has been patented in the United States, India, China, Chile and the European Community. It led first trial in the history of Chile of a vaccine developed in the country according to the regulations of the FDA and record approved by the Institute of public health by Alexis Kalergis.

18.-a worldwide, an important milestone is the creation of the first recombinant vaccine by Pablo Valenzuela, (though not made in Chile) Chilean biochemist.

19.-Kit BoviMan for diagnostic bovine tuberculosis (BTB), prize Avonni 2012, patented in Chile, Mexico and Argentina, Test program in Colombia to BTB. by Ana Maria Zarraga.

20 development of "bioelectronics medicine" in Neuroendocrinology by Hernán Lara and now tendered by GSK.

21.-role of dendritic cells in the destination of lymphocytes to different tissues, developing the concept ofhomingspecific tissue of lymphocytes B (Mario Rosemblatt and María Rosa Bono).

22 detect the activity of a single ion channel and unveil its electric language (Ramón Latorre, 1972)

23.-discovery of angiotensin-1-9: a new peptide regulator of the cardiovascular system. Patents in Chile and abroad 2008 and 2016: Maria Paz Ocaranza, Jorge E. Jalil, Mario Chiong and Sergio Lavandero.

24.-role of insulin on the morphology and mitochondrial function in the cardiomyocyte (Diabetes 2014, Lab Sergio Lavandero).

25.-studies that systematically defining the impact of alterations in protein homeostasis to multiple diseases neurodegenerative and the development of gene therapy to placate the cellular stress. Lab Claudio Hetz.

26.-Solid and liquid blood-free medium for growingP. salmonis; method of preparation and method to simplify the isolation of cells ofP. salmonis201401466 2014 (Carcamo, Victor Olavarria and Alejandro Yanez J.Guillermo).

27. report of the first Bacteriophage PM2, which possesses lipid, like the cell membrane. Romilio cinnamon Espejo-Eliana.

28. two Chilean biochemists have received the medal in gold of the world of the intellectual property organization (WIPO), Pablo Valenzuela and Alexis Kalergis.

29. development of the first chimeric Antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor-human, with utility in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Patent WO 2011083175 A1, 2010. Juan Carlos Aguillon, Maria Carmen Molina, Roberto Zuniga. University of Chile and Bestpharma S.A.

30.-creation of the first biosimilar, a chimeric antibody against the CD20 marker, with utility in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and autoimmunity. 2015 maria Carmen Molina and Juan Carlos Aguillon. University of Chile and Bestpharma S.A.

31.-discovery of mitochondrial QC has marked a historic turning point in the study of mitochondria and its relation with the development of diseases (Álvaro. A. Elorza, Universidad Andrés Bello).